The purpose of this research was to reveal the problems and issues associated with the Long term Athlete Development System, that is, the key factor for the talent identification, athlete development, and the framework of performance enhancement in Japan. This study was carried out by reconsidering the ideas and thoughts built in the past activities related to the Long-term Athlete Development System in Japan based on the existing reports. The first plan for the development of Long-term Athlete Development System was called “The Total Plan for long-term Athlete Development” made by the commission for performance enhancement of Japan Sports Association in 1979. Given several similar plans, Japan Olympic Committee (JOC) started a project called “Model Development for Long-term Athlete Development System for Performance Enhancement” in 1999. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), then, developed the basic Plan for the Promotion of Sports in 2000. Consequently, the development of the Long-term Athlete Development System became a national project. The concept of the Long-term athlete development is to implements the best practice of caching for each developmental stages based on the coaching curriculum and the shared mission and philosophy including talent identification, development, and performance enhancement, in order to maximize athlete’s potential to world class. Moreover, the Long-term Athlete Development System refers to the total system to effectively manage, operate, and utilize the resources, and circumstances necessary to carry it out. Given the result from the research by MEXT in 2007, however, it was revealed that the Long-term Athlete Development System did not work effectively in each prefecture. It was concluded that recognizing and sharing the philosophy and approached in coaching derived from the Long-term Athlete Development System is the most important for everyone working at the elite level in Japan, but still remains to be an issue.