The purpose of this preliminary study is to investigate usability of the Japanese version of Children's Playfulness Scale (JCPS) to be a supplement scale for screening high functioning autism in early developmental stage. METHOD : The social skills and free-play behaviors of five 3 to 6 year olds high functioning autism (HFA), and seven typically development (TD) children were compared. All of HFA children had been referred to the Senshu Psychoeducation Room (SPER). TD children were recruited from public nursery kindergarten near Senshu University. They were paid 2,000 yen for participation of the study. After we acquired written informed consent from mothers of every child precisely, they filled out the JCPS. RESULTS : HFA children were found to have significantly poorer skill in playfulness than TD children. Especially, significant differences were found between groups with regard to humor. Based on odds ratio in each question of the JCPS, the short version of JCPS (JCPS-SV), which consisted of 11 questions out of 23 was examined. The JCPS-SV also showed good reliability and validity.CONCLUSION : Though this is the preliminary study, the JCPS and its short version might be useful scale for detecting HFA in aspect of playfulness.