This paper focuses on development of recent footpath projects in Japan. These projects commonly intend to promote local empowerment : attracting visitors who could enjoy beautiful landscapes or experience the life of people in each area by walking through footpaths, facilitating access to original sightseeing spots, and stimulating local residents to rediscover the fascination of their life and the imagination for local development through the communication with the visitors. Our case study on six footpath projects in Honshu and Hokkaido verified that they actually had those merits of recreation, easy access, and rediscovery for local empowerment. The key to understanding the development and problems of the footpath projects is to highlight the social structure composed of “two axes” and “four actors”. The two axes correspond to the number of residents and land owners around footpaths, and the level of involvement of local governments in the footpath projects. Four actors are local governments, community action groups including NPOs and voluntary organizations, local residents, and visitors, each of which has been involved in footpath projects with different standpoints and values. According to dispositions of four actors on two axes, the development of the six footpath projects can be divided into two types. The first type of footpath projects, especially shown in Honshu cases, was originally planned and formed by local governments as a part of the local development policy. Then, they promoted the projects by asking community action groups or local residents for participation, and providing administrative shared resource or money. On the contrary, the founders and facilitators of the second type footpath projects were the voluntary groups formed by local residents and land owners, which was clearly shown in two Hokkaido cases. Their main purpose on the projects is to share their lifestyle or the greatness of their area with visitors. In the process of their development, both types of footpath projects confronted same difficulties in negotiation with other residents and land owners around the footpath courses. To relieve their concerns over privacy and security, the facilitators must spend enormous time and effort persuading them or reinforcing patrols of footpaths.
127 - 140
専修人間科学論集第2巻第2号 : 柴田弘捷教授退職記念号
Special issue in Honor of the Retirement of Professor Hirotoshi Shibata